Thursday, October 17, 2019

Advantages and disadvantages of the health insurance system in US Essay

Advantages and disadvantages of the health insurance system in US - Essay Example anaged care insurance systems, through PPOs and HMOs in America, hopes to influence the rules of supply and demand in consumer care, and Medicare provide programs that increase accessibility for the poor and elderly. But many think that healthcare organizations need to reach out to the community in terms of educational programs that seek to foster the health of the community as a whole, rather than treat ailments in a specialized manner and have it end at that. Accessibility, as well as education, is an important goal for the model healthcare program in terms of conceptual framework. attractive alternative to many people who are facing financial challenges. The rapid growth of individuals from Medicare who have gone to managed care during the nineties is a strong portrayal of how popular managed care is in terms of what it offers, which is in many cases substantially more than Medicare. Many managed care insurance providers offer prescription drug coverage and other types of coverage that are not covered by Medicare. But many wonder whether managed care operations can keep cost effective with so many clients and so much liability and responsibility to individuals on these will have to be solved for the future to look very bright. In the US insurance system, HMOs are a relatively new development, although some of them have roots in the mid-twentieth century. There are still application-based and ethical imperatives to ask the status of these programs, especially in terms of their relevance to government healthcare programs as supplementary services and their position in a dynamic healthcare economy that is becoming increasingly privatized. This reflects the essential debate between government control and interference in national healthcare. That is,

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Effects of Facebook Usage on the Egyptian Revolution Research Paper

Effects of Facebook Usage on the Egyptian Revolution - Research Paper Example In fact, social networking sites have been the most visited websites in the internet and a lot of news from current events have traversed the connections in these social networking sites. Among the currently existing social networking sites, perhaps the most popular is Facebook. Because of the great advantages and convenience that it offers, Facebook has been part of the ways for people to communicate with each other, from simple personal messages to updates about what is going on with both the local and international communities. As such, this research paper will look into exactly how instrumental Facebook has been in affecting one of the most controversial events of recent times, and that is the Egyptian revolution. This research study and the applied hypotheses are rooted on the Theory of Planned Behavior by Icek Ajzen (1987). The goal of the Theory of Planned Behavior is to provide an explanation as to why people do what they do (Ajzen, 1987). Theorists explain that people do so because they form an INTENTION to carry out the action. Intentions are influenced by the person’s beliefs, the social pressure to conform to the wishes of others, and their perceived ability to carry out the action. These are known as ATTITUDE, SUBJECTIVE NORM and PERCEIVED BEHAVIORAL CONTROL. Thus, the Theory of Planned Behavior is a theory which predicts deliberate behavior, because behavior can be deliberative and planned. According to the theory, the best predictor of behavior is intention. Intention is the cognitive representation of a person's readiness to perform a given behavior, and it is considered to be the immediate antecedent of behavior (Ajzen, 2005). This intention is determined by three things: their attitude toward the specific behavior, their subjective norms and their perceived behavioral control. The theory of planned behavior holds that only specific attitudes toward the behavior in question can be expected to predict that behavior (Manstead & Parker 1995 ; Terry, Hogg and White 1999; Parker, et al 1992). In addition to measuring attitudes toward the behavior, it is necessary to measure people’s subjective norms – their beliefs about how people they care about will view the behavior in question. To predict someone’s intentions, knowing these beliefs can be as important as knowing the person’s attitudes. Finally, perceived behavioral control influences intentions. Perceived behavioral control refers to people's perceptions of their ability to perform a given behavior. These predictors lead to intention. A general rule, the more favorable the attitude and the subjective norm, and the greater the perceived control the stronger should the person’s intention to perform the behavior in question (Aronson, Wilson and Akert 2003). This study is interested in knowing how the actions of people pertaining to using Facebook affected the revolution and partly, the study is also interested in knowing why people re acted as they did and what were the effects after such actions.

Advantages and disadvantages of the health insurance system in US Essay

Advantages and disadvantages of the health insurance system in US - Essay Example anaged care insurance systems, through PPOs and HMOs in America, hopes to influence the rules of supply and demand in consumer care, and Medicare provide programs that increase accessibility for the poor and elderly. But many think that healthcare organizations need to reach out to the community in terms of educational programs that seek to foster the health of the community as a whole, rather than treat ailments in a specialized manner and have it end at that. Accessibility, as well as education, is an important goal for the model healthcare program in terms of conceptual framework. attractive alternative to many people who are facing financial challenges. The rapid growth of individuals from Medicare who have gone to managed care during the nineties is a strong portrayal of how popular managed care is in terms of what it offers, which is in many cases substantially more than Medicare. Many managed care insurance providers offer prescription drug coverage and other types of coverage that are not covered by Medicare. But many wonder whether managed care operations can keep cost effective with so many clients and so much liability and responsibility to individuals on these will have to be solved for the future to look very bright. In the US insurance system, HMOs are a relatively new development, although some of them have roots in the mid-twentieth century. There are still application-based and ethical imperatives to ask the status of these programs, especially in terms of their relevance to government healthcare programs as supplementary services and their position in a dynamic healthcare economy that is becoming increasingly privatized. This reflects the essential debate between government control and interference in national healthcare. That is,

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Diversity in the workplace Essay Example for Free

Diversity in the workplace Essay a.) Diversity in the workplace is recognized positively in many different ways, and can make up a strong workforce of all aspects inside different organizations. These include a variety of age, gender, their background, race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, and personality or even the style of how somebody works. All these factors create a diverse work force. By embracing these factors into the daily running of an organization it can be beneficial for both employer and employee, working pleasantly where everybody feels valued and respected. New talents are discovered and people are treated as individuals and are not stereotyped due to popular beliefs. see more:explain the principle of informed choice Employers must abide by, practice and integrate all aspects of the Equality Act 2010 as a legal requirement. Employees of the organization can help to create and carry out these policies and have the responsibility of ensuring a positive outcome in workforce tasks. Having a wider area of skills and talents to choose from will help generate new ideas helping the organization to run smoothly and exceed success on new levels. The workplace becomes host to diversity’s benefits recognizing the different terms of knowledge and differences in all work related areas. In feeling valued and respected as an individual this reflects on that persons work persona in a positive way, sympathizing with customers and working better in general to achieve the organizations crucial targets and goals. The Equality Act 2010 was introduced on 1st October 2010 and is a key piece of legislation. This Act provides the overall legal guidelines that protect the individual’s rights in the workplace and provides the correct legislation that promotes opportunity amongst all diverse platforms. The key acts that comprise the act as a whole are: * Equal Pay Act 1970 * Sex Discrimination Act 1975 * Race Relations Act 1976 * Disability Discrimination Act 1995 * Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003 * Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003 * Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006 * Equality Act 2006, Part 2 * Equality Act (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2007 Within the workplace there are policies/procedures and legislation materials that employers and employees can have easy access to on a day to day basis by using the organizations in house systems such as intranet or company website which will have sections specifically targeted to that area of the business. These sources of information can be readily available at the click of a button. By having access to the human resources department this also can offer a wealth of information in regards to company policies, company legislations, handbooks and information with regards to the courses and training that can further background knowledge on this information and can then allow both parties to put what they have learnt into practice. b.) It is of the highest importance to make sure we are all working in a healthy and safe environment and it is the responsibility of all staff to take reasonable care of your own health and safety and of others. It is important to follow instructions and cooperate with the health and safety department on regulatory matters that will arise and to attend relevant health and safety training where necessary. We must also familiarize with the health safety at work manuals these can be found on the DRI intranet or the Human Resources department. We must report any injuries, strains or illnesses as a result of your job role or potential hazards and defects observed in the workplace to the health safety department, so they can be resolved before it can lead to potential escalation. In recognition of these problems it is important that you utilize the company facilities for example this could be in the form of using of VDU’s (visual display unit) which could potentially cause eye strain as a result of prolonged use. The company can reimburse the cost of spectacles and lenses. If in specific departments you require personal protective equipment (PPE) or adequate welfare facilities, these are used free of charge and it is important you notify health safety department, should you need to order more. This is a fundamental rule when working with abrasive products. It is also vitally important to us you that you have the correct amount of rest breaks during the working day. Security of all employees is crucial, so we must make sure to fob in and out of the building when arriving or leaving the building so as to safely access the building and have a record of when and what times you leave during the day. If you happen to leave the fob at home or lose it you must contact reception to be provided with a temporary or a replacement from payroll. If you are expecting a visitor you must request they sign in and out of the building at all costs this ensures we have a record of who has been in and out of the building should an incident occur. By working in a healthy and safe environment we can remain motivated and enthused in order to prevent incidents occurring. We can be confident in our workplace surroundings striving for a much better working atmosphere. The two types of decision making made at DRI (Diamond Resorts International) are those of operational decisions which are carried out on the everyday running of the business, and decisions derived from other departments (strategically) which factors in senior management staff to make long term decisions for the business and to pin point the direction the business is going to take with more beneficial effects. Operational decisions are made up of key stages that we strategically follow; firstly we identify the decision and analyze all factors. Grid Analysis is one stage in the process that helps you to decide between several options, where you need to take many different factors into account. An alternative way is also writing out the pros and cons of that area presenting it to you in balance. An example of using grid analysis; in the key stages of making decisions. By consulting a team leader and organizing a group meeting you will be able to obtain ideas and advice from all knowledgeable bodies and consult with senior staff before a decision is made. This can give you wider pool of avenues to consider whilst going through the key stages. If the decision to be made is predominantly made by two people from separate parties they must have the knowledge to negotiate with each other to implement the decision and be satisfied in all areas. The use of feedback is important in these key stages as it allows us to gain feedback from people who hold down different job roles and responsibilities; therefore are given a variation of information that may assist in the final decision. Most operational decisions are being made day to day by team leaders and departmental managers which factor in team member’s assistance and views. Departments that deal with more executive decisions will have a larger span of control; when a manager oversees the day to da y smooth running of his/her department of staff. When training on the job role we are trained to identify what decision would need to be referred through for approval. An example of this would be the procedure that Human resources department at Diamond Resorts follow which is known as a Recruitment Authorisation form (SRAF), this is used for the recruitment of any new member of staff. If the Resort Manager at Pine Lake wanted to recruit a new housekeeper she would fill this form in and send it to the HR department. Human Resources review this by checking we are paying the correct wage or the number of hours worked is reasonable. It is then sent to the Regional Director (Carmina Saiz) for approval. Once returned to us with approval we ask Vice President of European Resort Operations (Suzana Gomercic) for approval. Once approved HR then send the form, to Executive Vice-President Steve Bell, for final approval only when these processes happen can the recruitment process begin. At each of these levels the approver has the potential to decline the request or to make a change, for example, to suggest the hours worked should be 40 hours instead of 37 hours. This would implicate the span of control going through the different processes identifying who would approve each decision before a permanent decision is made. Task 2 a.) The Importance of planning prioritizing work at DRI – Notes for guidance To help support you and achieve to the highest standard here at Diamond Resorts International it is important you are able to plan and be organized in order to meet the set deadlines for the daily running of all the departments. It is important that you are able to use your time correctly to ensure that all deadlines are met and so that you can achieve the required goals and objectives’ in daily set tasks to help other people in their responsibilities to others. We have a number of facilities at DRI and it is important we use them in order to be timely and efficient, and allow all outcomes of the day be less stressful for you and your team members. * The online mailing system is a key part of the organization and is vitally important for the outside communications and communicating inside all departments around the building. Diary systems are very useful for booking/referring back to appointments and can be used to schedule any tasks or work you may need to prioritize before the end of the day. * You may have access to different calendars’ for meeting rooms around the building. By gaining this access it allows you to see who and what time a room is booked out for, enabling you to book in and around it for yourself or upon a request via another team member. This could include any visitors meeting with you or senior management. The calendar sends you reminder so you can make the necessary arrangements for their arrival. * To do lists can be simple and easy to do on paper or electronically. If for any reason IT department is having issues via the computer software and you become unable to access your computer and cannot use the software to input your data. You can do a simple to do list on paper this will be a temporary measure to remind you and help your day run more smoothly whilst the repairs are underway. Under some circumstances we take under consideration the reasons deadlines could be late, interrupted and may not potentially be met due to certain contributing fa ctors inside the office. * Communication is important throughout working hours, between team members, and is important to have the right level at all times to ensure work is communicated effectively around the office. Too much communication can cause distractions if certain topics are not work related and can be discussed out of office times. This can be avoided by talking about unrelated work topics out of office hours, on lunch breaks or short breaks throughout the day. * It is possible you may be interrupted frequently throughout the day. This could simply be to help another team member, due to technical difficulties or answering the telephone to a customer which could unfortunately take you off task. Make sure you log where you are in order to resume where you left off. The technical difficulties can have a knock on effect for everyone in your department and it is important to try and do as much paper based work as possible to get you up to speed and prepared for the deadline so you are ready to carry on once the issues have been resolved. * There may be times when there is lack of resources around the office if you feel this will have a significant effect on areas of your work then you need to notify a member of the senior management team so they can replenish stock or locate resources from an alternative means. If the department you are working in is short staffed, senior management may want to hire temporary staff to complete clerical/admin tasks. If there are unforeseen circumstances for example you are unable to get to work on time due to problems with public transport, family emergencies or problems etc. In this case some issues cannot always be helped; you must notify your department of issues and if possible explain what work may need to be completed in order to help contribute with the work that is being delayed. b.) After three months of working for Diamond Resorts International it is company procedure to have an appraisal after three months service. I first received a letter from my head of department a week before my appraisal was due. Stating where the meeting was to be held, what time and who it would be with. It was held on the 23rd of October at 3.00 pm with the Human Resources manager. Before I was to attend the meeting I did a small self assessment on paper to remind me what needed to be outlined during the discussion. Once we sat down to commence the meeting I was asked if I was enjoying the new job role also if there was any ongoing problems that needed to be resolved. I explained that I had been enjoying the job role very much and found the prospects for working for DRI very exciting. I was told during my appraisal that all my hard work had been satisfactory and what I had been achieving was more than up to standard. As the job role was new to the company I felt proud to say that I had built the reception area up by myself and enjoyed co-coordinating the maintenance of the building. Making the area more organized and flow with the filed systems I had created. Whilst in the meeting I thought that it would be a good idea to discuss what I had planned for the future, as although I like the job role I require something more challenging and something that can test and push my abilities to what I am more capable of. This meeting was vital for the communication between manager and employee as is important to see where can be improved and problems can be raised and dealt with properly to the discretion of the employee. c.) My career goals illustrated via the SMART technique Complete Level 3 Diploma in Business Administration course with all distinctions aiming for the highest mark possible and pass the functional skills math’s exam, after attending all after hours classes and get back up to speed with mathematic skills. Consider moving job roles/departments after completion of the six month probationary period. All technical certificates will be prepared, passed and achieved in order to start the NVQ level units. Keep practicing for the functional skills math’s test, continuing the drop in math’s sessions allowing learning and improvement on the subject. I will be looking at different job role summaries and familiarizing with them. All the technical certificates have been prepared for and have the correct resources and information to achieve each unit. Each certificate will have a specific time to achieve handouts and activities to complete in order to gather all the information required to achieve set target scores. By completing and concentrating on each unit at once I can put 100% into each unit, also enabling me the flexibility of fulfilling my own job role. There will be points in the day where I will have to break of and do my duties that are required of me as an employee of DRI. I will also be completing functional skills out of office hours. Each unit I have set myself minimum of 2 weeks to complete. This is ample time to have completed each individual unit and have the feedback comments sent over to me via email from my assessor. Each 2 weeks my assessor will come and visit and discuss my progress. Section B 1. a) The key points that are included in a contract of employment could be any of the following; the contract will have the name of your employer and the employee also the date the employment commenced. The number of working hours you will be required to work during the week. The contract will inform you of how much holiday entitlement you are allocated annually, also how they will calculate them yearly. The details of sick pay and statutory pay will be enclosed in a contract of employment also the pension details. The contract will describe the job title and the brief job description of the work, and the location of where work has to be carried out. b.) A contract of employment is an agreement between employer and employee which determines the relationship between both parties. A written contract can include one short handwritten page or a lengthy document containing detailed components. Each business should take the time to carefully prepare a contract of employment for each employee. All businesses have different needs and outlooks, the style and content of each contract of employment will be different. 2. There are a number of representative resources that can assist employees with information and support them where necessary; The Equal Opportunities commission (EOC) is a regulatory body that promotes statutory rights within the employment sector and monitors human rights; offers on hand legislation and legal frameworks to the members of the public informing them of their rights. ACAS (Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service) is a regulatory body available online and is available for employees/employers that aim to improve organisations through better employment relationships. They also help by updating their website with the most current forms of legislation, and offering free independent advice. 3. a.) There are many factors that can lead to being under pressure in a workplace environment, where a professional manner can become difficult to maintain. If you are running by a tight deadline it could become increasingly difficult to reach, due to lack of resources or due to your organizations department being understaffed. The nature of your work could become strained as a result of more elements being added to a task than originally identified. There could be fundamental changes in your job role with new standards that need to be met in order to meet company deadlines pressuring the work environment further. b.) It is important in any departments of organizations that we declare our work progress; this is so we can keep up to date with targets and deadlines also so that team members can utilize the use of support they may need in the work processes, where necessary in order to complete tasks. It is also important to log our progress of work so we can anticipate any problems that we could encounter, and identify them before them before they happen. To identify our progress we are not impacting on others workloads in a negative way, we are working alongside them resulting in a positive outcome. 4. By continuously seeking to improve our performances at work we are able to assess and consider the possible options going forward in the work place, you are exceeding your own limitations/performance, learning new skills and producing quality work that meets the high standards of your organization. By achieving targets and goals are of a higher standard because you are putting more effort into your work. This not only gives the employer a good impression but can give you more chance of increasing your income or getting a promotion, it also gives you the motivation needed to proceed with your work. The efficiency and effectiveness in producing work can give you a sense of satisfaction, as well as receiving positive feedback from the people around you. By using certain analytical procedures we can assess our progress and see where would be the need for improvement. By using SWOT analysis or SMART techniques we can identify our skills, threats, our strengths which can be used to our advantages helping us to focus on our career pathways. Feedback (whether formal or informal) is a key way of enabling us to improve our own performances in the workplace whether it be positive or negative feedback we can take pointers away and work on them to improve work place performances inside of office hours. 5. There could potentially be problems in the workplace which cannot be solved without the interjection of another member of staff. This could be caused by lack of resources for example being short staffed, which is the responsibility of senior management who overlook the Rota’s to make sure there is significant cover ensuring the team can operate as a whole. If the department you are working in has frequent interaction with customers; there may be customer complaints that are not being dealt with correctly. Customers may wish to speak to senior members of staff who can investigate further taking the customer down a different route to solve their query, which only they will have the authorization to do. You may need to refer a problem if the solution involves reimbursement of company funds, or the problem may have a serious impact on an overall company targets. If there is a serious risk to a person’s life or the problem is in breach of a Health and Safety procedure, you must ensure that the information is passed on and dealt with by a member of the correct department as they will be familiar with all the policies and be able to devise a solution.

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Decolonisation Of Ghana History Essay

The Decolonisation Of Ghana History Essay 1. Abstract: This Extended Essay is going to be about the Decolonization of Ghana. I have chosen this Topic due to my Interest in that country and because I spend my holidays there once a year. This essay is supposed to view the decolonization of Ghana and the reasons and thoughts behind it. This Extended Essay is written for the people who are interested into the problems and affairs in the decolonialization of Ghana. This piece of work is should show the recipients the reasons and problems linked with decolonialization and if the people of Ghana received the Independence and its aftermath with enthusiasm and/or neglecting. The essay can be divided up into a theoretical piece, in which I will write about the decolonization, its problems and reasons and a second part, where I will discuss how Nkrumah was able to get support. My research questions are: What are the reasons for decolonization and to what extent was Nkrumah successful in gaining support for Ghana and how? Well we know that reasons for the decolonization was due to the fact that Nationalism and self-rule were things the people of Ghana were aiming for, which without removal of the current situation could not have been realized. The other fact is that Nkrumah was successful in gaining Ghanaian support, with factors being bankruptcy of Britain, hatred for Britain, and thanks to the important constitutions made. What we are unaware of is how these steps were taken in order to counter the problems and to what extent they were able to be successful in removing their problems. 2. Introduction: During World War 2, colonies from around the globe came back to their mother countries in order to help their colonial masters fight against the enemies. While the going to be Prime Ministers, Henrik Verwoerd and B.J. Vorster, of South Africa supported Hitler, the majority of French colonialists remained loyal to its government until 1943. The wartime propaganda from the Germans had a part in this defiance of British rule. Japans conquests in the Far East caused shortages of various products such as minerals etc. Africa was therefore then used to make up for this problem and could greatly profit from this decision. U-Boats monitoring the North-Atlantic Ocean restricted the shipping of raw materials to Europe and so made the industries in Africa come to life. Local industries in turn caused the creation of new towns, and existing towns doubled in size. As urban community and industry grew so did trade unions. In addition to trade unions, urbanization brought about inc reased literacy, which allowed for pro-independence newspapers. By the 1930s, the colonial powers had carefully cultivated a small elite of leaders educated in Western universities and familiar with ideas such as self-determination. These leaders, including some major nationalists such as Kenyatta (Kenya), Nkrumah (Gold Coast, Ghana), Senghor (Senegal), and Houphouet-Boigny (Cà ´te dIvoire) came to lead the struggle for independence. 2. What are the reasons for decolonization? Before discussing this policy in these fields, it would be helpful, perhaps, to give a general picture of the kind of government that ruled at the time. The government could have been described as a mixture of direct rule by the central government and the rule of African institutions. There had been a steady bias towards the latter. Ghana is a classical example of decolonization of an English colony after World War Two. A mix of nationalism, a foundation of self-rule and educated elite, men returning from serving in WW2, strong leadership, and a weakening of Europes hold on colonies because of the devastation of World War Two made Ghana the vanguard of sub-Saharan African independence. There was a disease threatening the cocoa farmers. This disease was damaging cocoa farms at an extremely high rate and despite scientific research the only solution to this was to cut out the infected trees. This didnt please the farmers since at the time the price for cocoa was very high. So following the solution the government was experiencing resistance throughout the land. But the greatest problem was the deprivation. At the same time other disorders had broken out in the business district of Accra. Crowds, dissatisfied with the new prices resulting from the boycott agreement, which had been made, and incited by agitators had began to riot and loot and burn both European and Syrian owned stores. It even came that far that the people broke into the prison and freed prisoners to join in. This kind of turmoil spread to other towns of the Gold Coast./ It was the time for change. 3. How was decolonization achieved? World War II ushered in a massive wave of decolonization struggles, and dozens of new states. The first half of the twentieth century was devastating for European colonial powers. The cumulative cost of World War I, the collapse of control and stability during the Age of Anxiety, and the devastating epic conflict of World War II, all contributed to the erosion of colonial control. Although regions seeking independence still had years of fighting to endure after 1945, countries like Britain, France, Belgium, Portugal, and the Netherlands were in a losing struggle to hold onto their colonies. Japan, Germany and Italy lost their colonial empires immediately following their defeat. The U.S. also began to relinquish direct colonial control over acquired territories, focusing its energies on building Cold War alliances and influence, In short, colonial empires collapsed all over the world, and out of this turmoil emerged dozens of new countries. World War II had a marked influence on the G old Coast. The changes it brought were found, of course, not only in the Dependency but in all colonial areas. World opinion had become much concerned with the problem of dependent peoples and the United Nations Charter included a section in which the colonial powers agreed to promote the advancement and eventual self-government of these territories.The Country of Ghana had been developing economically and so the focus of government power gradually shifted into the hands of the Ghanaians, instead of staying in those of the Governor and his officials. This had been made possible due to gradual development of a strong spirit of nationalism and which would eventually result in independence. In effect the Gold Coast was ready for an increased measure of self-government for the economic, social, and political development of the inter-war years had contributed to the experience of the Dependencys leaders. The territorial councils had broadened the viewpoint of chiefs hitherto confined to the particular interests of individual states, and service on the legislative council had taught the traditional rulers and the educated classes to work together in general with the view to the national good. Once the movement had begun, events moved rapidly, at a pace that not only surprised the colonial government but also among conservative African elements as well. In the late nineteenth century, an arbitrary political system which placed almost all power into the hands of the governor through his appointment of council members had been thought unacceptable by a number of educated Africans. In the 1890s, a group was formed named, the Aborigines Rights Protection Society, by members of the educated coastal elite. They protested against a land bill that threatened traditional land tenure. In the end this protest helped build a foundation for political action that would ultimately lead to independence. From the African members of the legislative Council, one of them, Joseph E. Casely-Hayford, convened the National Congress of British West Africa, which then sent a delegation, so that the colonial office was urged to consider the principle of elected representation, in 1920. This group represented the first expression of political solidarity between nationalist and intellectuals of the area. Sadly the delegation had not been received, but it had by any means aroused considerable support from the Africans elite back home. Granting their call for elected representation as opposed to a system, in which the governor appointed numbers of the council, the nationalists had insisted that they were loyal to the British crown and that they only would help make an extension to British political and social practices of Africans. They had important leaders, such as Africanus Horton, John Mensah Sarbah, and S.R.B. Attah-Ahoma. These few men gave the nationalist movement a distinctly elitist touch which was going to last. Provincial councils of paramount chiefs had been created by the constitution of 1925. The councils in return elected 6 chiefs as unofficial members of the legislative council. The new constitution was appearing to recognize African sentiments, but Guggisberg, governor and command-in-chief, was mostly concerned with how to keep the British interests protected. For example: Africans only had a limited voice in the central government. By doing this, Guggisberg had spawned a wedge between the chiefs and their educated subjects. The subjects now believed that the chiefs had cheated the by letting the provisional councils fall into British hands, son that the chiefs would be able to receive support from the British. However the chiefs and the intellectuals had begun to reproach each other again, by the mid 1930s. Agitation for more adequate representation continued. So two more unofficial African members had been added to the executive council in 1943, this was gained due to the call for broader representation. The Burns constitution of 1946, named after the governor in charge at the time or just known as the Gold Coast constitution, had been a very bold document. It was bold due to the fact that for the first time they had abandoned the concept of an official majority. 6 Ex-officio, 6 nominated members, and 18 elected members composed the legislative council at this moment. In addition it also admitted representatives from Asante. Although there was a Labour Party Government in power, the British still viewed their colonies as sources of raw materials. These sources were bitterly needed, since the British economy was crippled and they needed to strengthen it. Only after riots and looting did the British decide to make, the placing of real power into African hands, a priority. Ghana now had a decisive majority of elected members. They have reached a Level of maturity in politics unheard of elsewhere in Africa. The government had been unable to bring down high prices, curtail profiteering, a nd ease other economic burdens of the country. The people were disappointed that their representatives in the newly formed legislative council did nothing to help them in this battle. The above statements give us a fairly good indication of the U.G.C.C.s objectives. It is important at this juncture to notice certain characteristics if the organization. The organizations was mainly made up of the à ©lite, it also always put pressure on its aim of fulfilling self government. But it should be achieved by legitimate and constitutional means. These hints make the impression that the U.G.C.C. represented a kind of conservative nationalism in contrast to the later kind that will develop in the near future. But a new phase dawned upon the history of the organization, which they themselves hadnt realized, by the Mr.Kwame Nkrumah becoming its general secretary. Nkrumah was born in a small village of Nzima, in the western section of the colony, in September 1909. He studied at Achimota and later in the United States, where he obtained a bachelor of Divinity degree from Lincoln University and a Masters of Arts from the University of Pennsylvania. During his years in America and a later stay in England he had gained considerable experience in leadership by participating in various political organizations and in associations designed to promote Negro advancement or self-government in Africa. The U.G.C.C. hoped to make the best out of his knowledge and experience. Although they were highly mature in what concerned politics, the constitution didnt grant them the freedom of having self-government. The executive power still remained in the hands of the governor, to whom the legislative government was responsible. The constitution faced trouble, although it had been greeted with enthusiasm. Many Gold Coast Veterans upon return, meanwhile WWII had ended, came back to a country in which shortages, inflation and unemployment ruled. So veterans started to form into a group of discontent people who were at the brink of creating disruptive action. Soon they were joined by farmers and many others who expected economic improvements, since the war had ended, but didnt receive any. So the tensions were still increasing since the war had ended. These Riots then resulted in having all of the U.G.C.C. members, including Nkrumah, arrested. Through this these men became known as the Big Six. The big six were the release again upon the arrival of the commission. 4. To what Extent was Nkrumah successful in gaining Support for Ghana and how? Dr. Kwame Nkrumah was a political leader and icon throughout Africa. We are able to thank him for liberating the Gold Coast and form it into the Ghana, which we know today. As he watched independence beginning to start in Africa, Nkrumah was anxious during that entire stage, simply due to his thought that imperialist rulers had ingeniously postponed their ultimate demise by granting sovereignty to the colonies, which they had previously done. Our hero had devised many political objectives to fight these imperialists and implemented them at the perfect time. Nkrumah was able to present his political beliefs already at an early stage, already as a graduate student in Great Britain. He had joined a student club and brought his messages through the local newspapers, during his studies at LSE (London School of Economics). Later on Nkrumah then was able to publish a pamphlet which set its focus on showing the downside of the imperialist rule on the African continent. Included were also thoughts, by him, towards colonial freedom and a way in which it could be obtained. This leadership role of his, progressed further, while in the meantime he had been elected to the executive board of the West Africans Student Union, at the college he was attending. The later on as Vice President he continued to criticize outlandish rule. The passion, which turned out to be so strong, towards ending the foreign rule in Africa, that he even considered forming the group named, Circle Union of Socialist African Republics. This confidential group was looking to lib erate Africa from the foreign rule. Nkrumah had officially founded the CPP to aid the liberation of Ghana on the 12th of June 1949. Most members were pulled out from the Committee of Youth Organization. This program looked to be very promising as spread his ideas of self government to farmers, unions, womens unions, and many younger people. In Nkrumahs eyes the only way the citizens of Ghana would be able to take control of their government would be through political unity. Nkrumah argued that cultural and economic independence would follow close behind. The policies and the formation of Nkrumahs CPP brought a positive influence to the people in Ghana and seemed to be destructive to the British Governments chance of maintaining control. Many factors help him gain support from the people some of them were, Propaganda in the form of signs, and he also found that coming up with party songs that give hope to the nation, was effective. All these things were used to make Ghanaian citizens aware and to gain support in the rem oval of the foreign power in charge. Nkrumahs campaigning began the 8th of January in 1952. 5 key ways in which Nkrumah could fight the imperialistic forces where: political education, nationalist aid, propaganda, dipl. Cooperation and by implementing a new policy in which the country of Ghana would not get involved with any form of Imperialist. Every stage was positive from Nkrumahs point of view. He even tried to remove the temporary regional assemblies, which were the safeguards in the constitution which would help the opposition. The Preventive Detention Act was introduced 1957. This act was laws, which allowed the police officers to arrest and possibly detain people that his government thought to be working against them. Another point was that Nkrumah had a feeling in his gut that the only way to maintain an imperialist free country was to become economically independent as well. The best way was to become an industrialized country. 5. Conclusion In my opinion Ghana had reached their goal by gaining Independence from the British, but while doing this they had cut their own flesh. I will have to name the good things first before I come to the bad things. Ghana had decided to deport foreigners who were perceived as threats to Ghana in the Deportation Act of 1957, which I think is a reasonable choice to make since having foreigners in ones parliament might have different effects on people. In addition to that in 1960 Ghana had officially become a republic, namely on the 1st of July. But now to the bad side of things, the Ghanaians now had cut the connection of to the British and by doing this they might have forgotten the fact that they were still slightly dependent on them. With dependent I mean that their economy was dependent from the British. Once they had cut the cord there was no way back and so they lost their biggest trading partner Britain. The consequences followed shortly and it is one that you still can feel today. T he economy had plummeted since the loss. Nkrumah had made almost all the right decisions for his people, but he had forgotten about the economy. He was so concerned with the maltreatment of his country by the white man, which he, instead of considering the actions he was taking, wanted to get rid of them once and for all. Nkrumah didnt consider the advantages they had through the white imperialists, but saw them as a problem to the people of Ghana and other African countries. I myself, in Nkrumahs position of course, would have been upset about the ongoing suppression of the imperialists in the country and would have wanted to send them to the moon with a one way ticket. Things just dont work that way and it would have been a lot smarter to just consider the options and possibilities, of how to get rid of the imperialist, but maintain a stable country at the same time. 7. Books Bourret, F.M.: Ghana-The Road To Independence; Oxford University Press, 1960 Buenor Hadjor, Kofi: Nkrumah and Ghana; Kegan Paul International Limited, 1988 Gocking Roger S.: History of Ghana; Greenwood Press, 2005 Nkrumah Kwame: Consciencism 7.1 Internet sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Ghana (26/09/10) http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/history/independence.php (26/09/10) http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/history/slave-trade.php (26/09/10) http://www.honolulu.hawaii.edu/distance/hist/decol.htm (26/09/10) http://www.ukessays.com/essays/politics/dr-kwame-nkrumah.php (26/09/10)

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Female Independence in Catharine Maria Sedgewicks Hope Leslie and Kell

Female Independence in Catharine Maria Sedgewick's Hope Leslie and Kelly Clarkson's Song "Miss Independent" Authors have addressed the topic of female independence in various literary styles, including novels, novellas, and poetry. In our society today, independence for women is one of the main topics of many songs. The concept of female independence has changed over the years; people have gone from frowning upon female independence to celebrating it. Both Catharine Maria Sedgewick and pop singer Kelly Clarkson address female behavior that now, in the 21st century, is typical for many women. In Sedgewick’s Hope Leslie, the title character portrays a young woman that defies her society’s repressive Puritanical standards; she portrays independence, courage, and outspokenness. Clarkson, in her 2003 hit, â€Å"Miss Independent† expresses characteristics common in many females of modern American society; they tend to show independence, self-sufficiency, courage, and determination. Hope, in a way, is an anachronism; she represents characteristics of a 21st century woman, tho ugh living in the 17th century. In Hope Leslie, the typical woman of the repressed 17th century Puritan society portrays a very passive demeanor; she tends to behave in a quiet and humble way. Esther Downing and Mrs. Winthrop exemplify this expected behavior. They are quiet, humble, do not express their opinions, and show domesticity – they are the perfect Puritan female. The title character, Hope Leslie, grew up â€Å"among the strictest sect of the puritans† and due to her upbringing, her loved ones expect that her behavior reflect that of women like Esther and Mrs. Winthrop (127). However, Hope does not adhere to the expectations. She depicts outspokenness, e... ...r Philip, or have any sort of relationship with him whatsoever. Instead, Hope decides that she loves Everell and wants to be with him. Once again, Hope symbolizes how the majority of women would begin to behave as the years progressed. Hope is the 17th century version of â€Å"Miss Independent.† Sedgewick uses Hope to portray a woman that has the characteristics of a typical woman of the 21st century. Hope shows assertiveness, courage, independence, outspokenness, and many other qualities not usual for a Puritan woman during the 17th century. Kelly Clarkson’s â€Å"Miss Independence† represents the average female of the 21st century, especially American women. The concept of female independence has changed drastically over the years, and it continues to change. This 21st century song bears a strong representation of an atypical 17th century female, Hope Leslie.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The United States Should Convert to IFRS Essay example -- IFRS Account

The changes in IFRS will affect some slight modifications to significant amendments of principles. It can affect different areas of financial statements and information. For example, extensive disclosure requirements, financial statements and how specific elements will be recognize and measured. Those elements are financial instrument and employee benefit (IFRS, 2012). I think that it would be beneficial for United States to switch to IFRS, but I think that SEC should not vote to switching to IFRS after companies spend millions of dollars on converting from GAAP (Maryland). The European Union has already switched to IRFSs. It happened the same year when United States companies had deadline to switch over (Johnson). There are at least three reasons why the United States should switch to IFRS. The reasons are: international financial reporting standards. They will make easier for company to compare, understand and it will help stay up-to-date to multinational businesses (Johnson). Switching to IFRS will help not just companies but also investors and public globally to compare financial statements. If every country has different financial standards, if would be problematic to compare how each company stands because they are not the same. The United States is the only country who does not use the metric system (meters, kilometers, litters); instead they use the customary system (inches, feet). For example, if you will have to drive in another country you will not understand how far another grocery store because the sign tells you in meters not in miles. Also, if United States will switch over to IFRS from GAAP, it will allow US to become a part of the global economy. Another reason for United States to switch to IFRS th... ...l language is also beneficial for comparison of statement, understanding, and saving cost for international companies. Works Cited Albrecht, D. (October, 2011). American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. (November, 2013). International FinancialReporting Standards. Durham, NC: AICPA. Gill L. (June, 2012) IFRS: Coming to America Whitehouse T. (December, 2013). Foundation Says IFRS Becomes Global Preference. IFRS Changes Impacting the Banking Industry (August, 2012). Pricewaterhouse C. (November, 2012). Benefits of Changing to IFRS. The Maryland Association of CPAs. (November, 2013). SEC offers roadmap to global accounting standards. Horsfall N. (December, 2013). FRS Urges More Firms to Adopt IFRS. Durham. (November, 2008.)American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. International Financial Reporting Standards.